Core PPOR Methods Articles

  1. Peck MG, Sappenfield WM, Skala J. Perinatal Periods of Risk: A Community Approach for Using Data to Improve Women and Infants' Health. (2010) Matern Child Health J. Jul 3. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 20602162

    This paper provides an overview of the origins, purpose, and methods of the Perinatal Periods of Risk (PPOR) approach to community-based planning for action to improve maternal and infant health outcomes. PPOR includes a new analytic framework that enables urban
    communities to better understand and address fetal and infant mortality. This article serves as the core reference for accompanying specific PPOR methods and practice articles. PPOR is based on core principles of full community engagement and equity and follows a six stage community-based planning process. In Stage 1, communities are mobilized and engaged, related planning efforts aligned, andcommunity and analytic readiness assessed. In Stage 2, feto-infant mortality is mapped, excess mortality is estimated, likely causes of feto-infant mortality are determined, and appropriate actions are suggested. Stage 3 produces action plans for targeted prevention strategies. Stages 4 and 5 include implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Stage 6 fosters political will to sustain efforts. PPOR can be used in local maternal child health (MCH) practice for improving perinatal outcomes. MCH programs can use PPOR to integrate health assessments, initiate planning, identify significant gaps, target more in-depth inquiry, and suggest clear interventions for lowering feto-infant mortality. PPOR enables greater cooperation in improving MCH through more effective data use, strengthened data capacity, and greater shared understanding of complex infant mortality issues. PPOR offers local health departments and their community partners a comprehensive approach to address the health of women and infants in their jurisdictions.

  2. Sappenfield WM, Peck MG, Gilbert CS, Haynatzka VR, Bryant T 3rd. (2010) Perinatal Periods of Risk: Analytic Preparation and Phase 1 Analytic Methods for Investigating Feto-Infant Mortality. Matern Child Health J. Jun 20. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 20563881

    The Perinatal Periods of Risk (PPOR) methods provide the necessary framework and tools for large urban communities to investigate feto-infant mortality problems. Adapted from the Periods of Risk model developed by Dr. Brian McCarthy, the six-stage PPOR approach includes epidemiologic methods to be used in conjunction with community planning processes. Stage 2 of the PPOR approach has three major analytic parts: Analytic Preparation, which involves acquiring, preparing, and assessing vital records files; Phase 1 Analysis, which identifies local opportunity gaps; and Phase 2 Analyses, which investigate the opportunity gaps to determine likely causes of feto-infant mortality and to suggest appropriate actions. This article describes the first two analytic parts of PPOR, including methods, innovative aspects, rationale, limitations, and a community example. In Analytic Preparation, study files are acquired and prepared and data quality is assessed. In Phase 1 Analysis, feto-infant mortality is estimated for four distinct perinatal risk periods defined by both birthweight and age at death. These mutually exclusive risk periods are labeled Maternal Health and Prematurity, Maternal Care, Newborn Care, and Infant Health to suggest primary areas of prevention. Disparities within the study community are identified by comparing geographic areas, subpopulations, and time periods. Excess mortality numbers and rates are estimated by comparing the study population to an optimal reference population. This excess mortality is described as the opportunity gap because it indicates where communities have the potential to make improvement.

  3. Sappenfield WM, Peck MG, Gilbert CS, Haynatzka VR, Bryant T 3rd. (2010) Perinatal Periods of Risk: Phase 2 Analytic Methods for Further Investigating Feto-Infant Mortality. Matern Child Health J. Jun 18. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 20559697

    The perinatal periods of risk (PPOR) methods provide a framework and tools to guide large urban communities in investigating their feto-infant mortality problem. The PPOR methods have 11 defined steps divided into three analytic parts: (1) Analytic Preparation; (2) Phase 1 Analysis-identifying the opportunity gaps or populations and risk periods with largest excess mortality; and (3) Phase 2 Analyses-investigating these opportunity gaps. This article focuses on the Phase 2 analytic methods, which systematically investigate the opportunity gaps to discover which risk and preventive factors are likely to have the largest effect on improving a community's feto-infant mortality rate and to provide additional information to better direct community prevention planning. This article describes the last three PPOR epidemiologic steps for investigating identified opportunity gaps: identifying the mechanism for excess mortality; estimating the prevalence of risk and preventive factors; and estimating the impact of these factors. While the three steps provide a common strategy, the specific analytic details are tailored for each of the four perinatal risk periods. This article describes the importance, prerequisites, alternative approaches, and challenges of the Phase 2 methods. Community examples of the methods also are provided. All rights reserved©